تاثیر ضدقارچ بنومیل بر مرکب مازو حین تیمار آثار تاریخی کاغذی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده مرمت، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

2 دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

3 استاد- دانشکده منابع طبیعی کرج- دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

کاغذ در طول تاریخ بستر مناسبی جهت ثبت بوده که اطلاعات زیادی از فرهنگ و زندگی گذشتگان را در اختیار بشر قرار می‌دهد. اما کاغذ به دلیل ساختار آلی خود به شدت آسیب‌پذیر است. از جمله این آسیب‌ها عوامل بیولوژیکی و قارچی است که برای جلوگیری از آن و استفاده از یک مادۀ مناسب جهت ضدعفونی کاغذ یکی از موضوعات مورد توجه حفاظت‌گران آثار تاریخی است. مادة ضدقارچ بنومیل با غلظت 100 ppm برای حفاظت از کاغذهای تاریخی ارزیابی شده و نتایج مطلوبی برای آن گزارش شده است. اما تأثیر این آفت‌کش‌ بر روی دیگر مواد موجود در سطح کاغذهای تاریخی مانند مرکب‌ها نامشخص است. مرکب مازو یکی از پرکاربردترین مرکب‌های نسخ تاریخی است. بنابراین بررسی تأثیر مادة ضدقارچ بنومیل بر روی مرکب مازو در سطح کاغذ از اهمیت زیادی دارد که در این پژوهش به آن پرداخته شده است. جهت ارزیابی، پس از آماده‌سازی نمونه‌های آزمایشگاهی و پیرسازی آنها، آزمون‌های سنجش pH، رنگ‌سنجی، بررسی مقاومت، طیف‌سنجی FTIR-ATR و میکروسکوپی SEM انجام گرفت. بر اساس مقایسة نتایج نمونه‌های آزمونی و نمونة شاهد، ضدقارچ بنومیل در غلظت 100ppm تاثیر نامطلوبی بر مرکب مازو و سطح کاغذ نداشت. غوطه‌وری کاغذ در محلول بنومیل-اتانول سبب کاهش شدید مقاومت‌های کاغذ می‌شود و لازم است که از یک حلال مناسب یا روش کاربرد دیگری مانند اسپری‌کردن برای اعمال بنومیل در سطح اسناد تاریخی استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


- Abdolalizadeh, M., Azadi Boyaghchi, M., Mohammadi Achachluei, M., and Bahremandi Poorfard, R., 2016. Study of effects of Tiophanate methyl and Carbendazim fungicides on paper structure by application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Research on Archaeometry, 2(1), 55-66.

- Abdolalizadeh, M., Azadi Boyaghchi, M. and Mohammadi Achachluei, M., 2017. Study the effects of thiophanate-methyl fungicide on aesthetic and structural properties of paper. Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Science Research, 32(2), 261-274.

- Adelantado, C., Bello, C., Borrell, A. and Calvo, M.A., 2005. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of products used for disinfecting documents on paper in archives. Restaurator, 26(4), 235-238.

- Area, M.C. and Cheradame, H., 2011. Paper aging and degradation: recent findings and research methods. BioResources 6(4): 5307-5337.

- Arai, H., 2000. Foxing caused by fungi: twenty-five years of study. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 46(3), 181-188.

- Azadi Boyaghchi, M., Afsharpour, M. and Hadadi, M., 2016. Iron gall ink: the study of its preparation, the corrosion process and methods of treatment. GANJINE-YE ASNAD, 26(2), 134-159.

- Bacílková, B., 2006. Study on the effect of butanol vapours and other alcohols on fungi. Restaurator, 27(3), 186-199.

- Biricik, Y., Sonmez, S. and Ozden, O., 2011. Effects of surface sizing with starch on physical strength properties of paper. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 23(7), 3151-3154.

- Čabalová, I., Kačík, F., Gojný, J., Češek, B., Milichovský, M., Mikala, O., Tribulová, T. and Ďurkovič, J., 2017. Changes in the chemical and physical properties of paper documents due to natural ageing. BioResources, 12(2), 2618-2634.

- Chabavizadeh, J., Ahmadi, H., Mohammadi Achachlouei, M. and Shirdavani, M., 2017. The minimum inhibitory concentration of benomyl for four fungal species on historical papers. Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Science Research, 32(1), 131-144.

- Cheng, S., Huang, A., Wang, S. and Zhang, Q., 2016. Effect of different heat treatment temperatures on the chemical composition and structure of Chinese fir wood. BioResources, 11(2), 4006-4016.

- Choi, K.H., Yoon, B.H. and Lee, M.K., 2008. The effect of alum and metals on paper aging. Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry, 40(5), 42-46.

- Elnaggar, A., Sahab, A. and Ismail, S., 2010. Microbial study of Egyptian mummies: an assessment of enzyme activity, fungicides and some mummification materials for the inhibition of microbial deterioration. E-Conservation, (16), 39-49.

- Emsley, A.M., Heywood, R.J., Ali, M. and Xiao, X., 2000. Degradation of cellulosic insulation in power transformers. Part 4: Effects of ageing on the tensile strength of paper. IEE Proceedings-Science, Measurement and Technology, 147(6), 285-290.

- Gallo, F., 1985. Biological Factors in Deterioration of Paper. ICCROM, Rome, 172 p.

- Havlínová, B., Katuščák, S., Petrovičová, M., Maková, A. and Brezová, V., 2009. A study of mechanical properties of papers exposed to various methods of accelerated ageing. Part I. The effect of heat and humidity on original wood-pulp papers. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 10(2), 222-231.

- Isabell, LH. 1997. The effect of thymol on paper, pigments and media. Abbey Newslett, 21(3), 39-43.

- Jablonsky, M., Hrobonova, K., Katuscak, S., Lehotay, J. and Botkova, M., 2012. Formation of acetic and formic acid in unmodified and modified papers during accelarated ageing. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 46(5), 331-340.

- Jablonský, M., Katuščák, S., Kačik, F. and Kačiková, D., 2011. Changes in newsprint paper during accelerated ageing. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 45(5), 405-411.

- Karbowska-Berent, J., Jarmiłko, J. and Czuczko, J., 2014. Fungi in fox spots of a drawing by Leon Wyczółkowski. Restaurator. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material, 35(2), 159-179.

- Khalili Zonouz, M., 2018. Identification and control of damaging microorganisms in manuscripts of central Tabriz library, Iran. Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage, 18(1), 239-255.

- Khezripourarab, M., Hojjati, M. and Samavati, V., 2015. Effect of gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide as coating agents on oil uptake and texture of French fries using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Research, 25(4), 623-638.

- Mayil Hirawi, N., 1993. The Art of Bibliopegy in Islamic Civilization: A Collection of Articles on Penmanship Ink Making, Papers. Astan Quds Razavi, Mashhad, p.1048.

- Michaelsen, A., Pinzari, F., Barbabietola, N. and Piñar, G., 2013. Monitoring the effects of different conservation treatments on paper-infecting fungi. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 84, 333-341.

- Mohammadi Achachluei, M. and Kouchakzaei, A., 2014. Characterization of fungi and their effect on documents and manuscripts in the archive of Malek National Library and museum. GANJINE-YE ASNAD, 23(4), 126-145.

- Moradkhani, Z., Abdollahkhan Gorji, M., Vahidzadeh, R., Roohi, S. and Mahmoodi, R., 2011. A study on the effect of conservation adhesives on the absorption and development of biological agents in the archival records of Iran. GANJINE-YE ASNAD, 21(2), 62-79.

- Przybysz, P., Dubowik, M., Kucner, M.A., Przybysz, K. and Buzała, K.P., 2016. Contribution of hydrogen bonds to paper strength properties. PloS one, 11(5), e0155809-e0155819.

- Purinton, N. and Waiters, M., 1991. A study of the materials used by medieval Persian painters. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 30(2), 125-144.

- Roman, C., Diaconescu, R., Scripcariu, L. and Grigoriu, A., 2013. Biocides used in preservation, restoration and conservation of the paper. European Journal of Science and Theology, 9(4), 263-271.

- Sahab, A.F., Ismail, S.A. and Darwish, S.S., 2007. Conservation study of benlate fungicide and its effect on cellulases and beta- glusidases of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from old documents. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(6), 741-746.

- Sahin, H. and Arslan, M., 2008. A study on physical and chemical properties of cellulose paper immersed in various solvent mixtures. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9(1), 78-88.

- Sequeira, S., Cabrita, E.J. and Macedo, M.F., 2012. Antifungals on paper conservation: An overview. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 74, 67-86.

- Soltani, Z., Farahmand Borujeni, H. and Abed Esfehani, A., 2016. The impact of additive saffron on prevention of paper corrosion caused by Iron-Gall ink. Journal of Saffron Research, 4(1), 87-102.

- Soltani, Z., Farahmand Borojani, H., Abed Esfahani, A. and Ahmadi, H., 2015. The effects of additives on Iranian ink: henna and salt. GANJINE-YE ASNAD, 25(3), 128-148.

- Strassberg, R., 1978. The use of fumigants in archival repositories. The American Archivist, 41(1), 25-36.

- Surmak, A., 2016. Study of discoloured iron-gall ink inscriptions–case of the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines from Krzeszow. CeROArt. Conservation, Exposition, Restauration d’Objets d’Art, No. EGG 5.

- Taheri, M.A. and Samanian, K., 2017. Examination of foxing spots on Mondares manuscript of Shahnameh. GANJINE-YE ASNAD, 27(3), 96-108.

- Teixeira, F.S., dos Reis, T.A., Sgubin, L., Thomé, L.E., Bei, I.W., Clemencio, R.E., Corrêa, B. and Salvadori, M.C., 2018. Disinfection of ancient paper contaminated with fungi using supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 30,110-116.

- Van der Reyden, D., Hofmann, C. and Baker, M., 1993. Effects of aging and solvent treatments on some properties of contemporary tracing papers. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 32(2), 177-206.

- Velikova, T., Trepova, E. and Rozen, T., 2011. The use of biocides for the protection of library documents: before and now. 152-159. In Méndez-Vilas, A. (Ed.), Science against Microbial Pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances, Formatex Research Center, Badajoh, Spain, 691p.

- Zervos, S., 2010. Natural and accelerated ageing of cellulose and paper: A literature review. 393-402. In Lejeune, A. and Deprez, T., (Eds.), Cellulose: Structure and Properties, Derivatives and Industrial Uses. Nova Science Publishers, New York, 528p.

- Zou, X., Gurnagul, N., Uesaka, T. and Bouchard, J., 1994. Accelerated aging of papers of pure cellulose: mechanism of cellulose degradation and paper embrittlement. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 43(3), 393-402.